Ubuntu supports various media player which allow you to play audio and video from command line.
Mplayer – Movie Player
mplayer is a movie player for Linux. It plays most MPEG/VOB, AVI, ASF/WMA/WMV, RM, QT/MOV/MP4, Ogg/OGM, MKV, VIVO, FLI, NuppelVideo, yuv4mpeg, FILM and RoQ files, supported by many native and binary codecs. You can watch VCD, SVCD, DVD, Blu-ray, 3ivx, DivX 3/4/5, WMV and even H.264 movies, too.
You can install mplayer on Ubuntu as,
$ sudo apt-get install mplayer
Now, to play audio and video using mplayer, just type command “mplayer file_path/file_name.extention”
Play Video from Ubuntu Linux Terminal as,
$ mplayer helloworld_video.mp4
Play Audio from Ubuntu Linux Terminal as,
$ mplayer helloworld_audio.mp3
Note: With mplayer running from command line, you can use Arrow Keys for forward and rewind.